An Overview of Amateur Call Signs — Past and Present in JA

Ryota "Roy" Motobayashi, JJ1WTL
[ Prewar ]    [ Postwar ]    ( Current )    ( callsign.jp )

Soon after World War II

War was over. American troops stationed in Japan soon started amateur radio using

call signs. But finaly, they were concentrated to J#$$$-types.

See http://motobayashi.net/callbook/occupied-j.html

The call areas basically comes from Japan's pre-war definition. Chosen (Korea) still used Japan's J8-prefix until Feb. 14, 1948 (then they became HL). J9 was shifted from Taiwan and Nan'yo to Okinawa.


Source: QST Jan., 1947 p.48 (TKS TO JA1BWA)

During this era, J9AAO in Okinawa made an ultra-DX 16,800 km QSO in 6 meters, with CE1AH of Chile on October 17, 1947 [CQ].

Japan's Prefix Reduced to JA-JS

The ITU reduced the prefix block for Japan — and Germany, too — from J to JA-JS, at Atlantic City Conference of 1947 (effective Jan. 1, 1949).

German and Japanese Prefixes Reduced
Before the WarAtlantic City ConferenceLater
D ... Germany
DA-DM ... Germany
 

DA-DR ... Germany
 
DN-DQ ... Belgian Congo
DS-DT ... (South) Korea
DR-DT ... Belorussia, USSR
DU-DZ ... Philippines
J ... Japan
JA-JS ... Japan
 
JT-JV ... Mongolia
JW-JX ... Norway
(Not yet assigned)JY ... Jordan
(Not yet assigned)JZ ... Netherlands New Guinea (now Indonesia)

So the J stations changed their call signs to JA#$$-type 2×2 format on January 1, 1949. GHQ (General Headquarters of the Allied Forces) licensed the amateur stations. Not only Americans but also a Canadian, Robert G. Robson, VE7BKA (ex VE4DO, VE1UC) in Kure was able to get his club's call sign as JA5RG. An applicant was able to get a preferable suffix reflecting his initials as requested [JE3TEA].

In Okinawa, J9, the US allocated the KR6-prefix to there where has been under American military administration, so they chanded their call sings. But the authority only premited US nationals to open amateur stations this time. Not the Japanese nationals.

In the prefix KR6, R stands for Ryukyu, the geoglaphical name of the Islands, and 6 means that here is off-shore islands from the continental W6 area (but very very far...).


In addition, Iwo I. used JA0

Ogasawara staitions began to use KG6I$ call signs. The following call signs are reported [HG]:

KG61D ... Douglas Reef (= Okino-torishima I.) 1963 by Don Miller, W9WNV
KG6IF ... Marcus I.(= Minami-torishima I.), -1965 by N7KA; 1967 by W7CB
KG6IG ... Chichijima I. 1965-, by W3KTY
KG6IJ ... Iwo I.

JA1EEB/KG6 has operated from Marcus I. by Mr. Tsuboi from Japan Meteorological Agency.

Occupation Forces Moved away from JA to KA

In June 1950, Japan enacted the current Radio Act, in which the word "Amateur Radio" was first appeared in the Japanese law history, and held the first operator examination in that month. The previous law described its station as a "Private Radio Experimental Station," having some restrictions of the output power (10W) and operating hours [JA1BC]. In such a preparation for the reopening of Japan's own amateur radio, in June 1952, American stations quickly—in about half a month—changed their call signs to use KA prefixes, which had been used as KA1 in the Philippines before the war (the A in KA suggests Asia).

They vacated the JA prefix for the Japanese licensees, while they were remaining as KA AMRS (Auxiliary Military Radio Station) about twenty years after that [JA1AN 23].

By the way, the other series of MARS in Asia existed in American phone band on 40-m. At least AI1, AI2, AI4, AI7, AJ1, AJ2, AJ4 and AJ7 might be in Japan. (The US had gotten the AA-AL block at the Atlantic City Conference of 1947 [QST].) The big differences from KA stations were that (1) they contacted only MARS having call signs of AA-AB, AH-AL and AQ-AR (but some operators sometimes responded to the state-side), and (2) they frequently used coded phrases [JA2RM 1999h2].
"MARS" uses military frequencies for military back up communications and morale use for the US Government.
"AMRS" is a method in place that allows military and US Gov civilians to operate on the Japanese Amateur radio frequencies while in Japan.

Used KA Call Signs in Japan

Basically, KA2AA-KA9ZZ was used, with some exceptions as follows.

The FCC adopted the "Group Call Sign System" effective March 24, 1978. After that, Extra Class amateurs were entitled to get "Group A" 2×1 KA1$ call signs,
Advanced got "Group B" 2×2 KA0$$ and KA1$$, and
Novice got "Group D" 2×3 KA1$$$, KA2$$$ and KA5$$$.

In such a situation, under normal conditions, call signs
KA1AA in 1981,
KA1CG in 1981 and
KA1MC in 1978 (Sept. 6)
were supposed to be assigned not in Japan but in the US mainland.

The most resent QRV of an AMRS

As far as my research, KA2CC in 1988 is the last one.

Mr. Charlie Carpenter, KA2CC — Last KA
TimeQTHRefefence
1987-07JD1/MIARU HF World Championship
http://www.ad1c.com/dx4win/history.htm
1988-04-17Camp Zamahttp://lesnouvellesdx.fr/galerie/galerie2.php?page=moreqsl&pfx=KA2&id=KA2CC
1988-07JD1/MIARU HF World Championship
http://hamgallery.com/qsl/country/Minami_Torishima/ka2cc.htm
http://lesnouvellesdx.fr/galerie/galerie2.php?page=moreqsl&pfx=KA1M&id=KA2CC
http://www.ad1c.com/dx4win/history.htm
1988-10-15JD1/M http://lesnouvellesdx.fr/galerie/galerie2.php?page=moreqsl&pfx=KA2&id=KA2CC

Reopening by the Japanese

In 1952, Amateur Radio reopened in Japan, by the Japanese.

In June 1951, The authority held the first operator license exam, and in Feb. 1952, began to receive the applications for their station licenses, expecting the Peace Treaty going into effect (Apr. 28, 1952) [ZOKU]. Besides GHQ canceled the prohibition of Amateur Radio on March 11, 1952 [CQ]. and the Radio Administration Committee decided the licensing policy for Amateur Radio at the #76 Meeting on June 19, 1952 [ZOKU], and disclosed it on June 29, 1952 [JA1AN 22].

The new area definition was as the following figure and table:



The Very Early Allocation Table Post War
Administration OfficeCall Sign
KantoJA1AA-JA1VZ      JA1AAA-JA1VZZ
Shin'etsuJA1WA-JA1ZZ      JA1WAA-JA1ZZZ
TokaiJA2AA-JA2VZ      JA2AAA-JA2VZZ
HokurikuJA2WA-JA2ZZ      JA2WAA-JA2ZZZ
KinkiJA3AA-JA3ZZ      JA3AAA-JA3ZZZ
ChugokuJA4AA-JA4ZZ      JA4AAA-JA4ZZZ
ShikokuJA5AA-JA5ZZ      JA5AAA-JA5ZZZ
KyushuJA6AA-JA6ZZ      JA6AAA-JA6ZZZ
TohokuJA7AA-JA7ZZ      JA7AAA-JA7ZZZ
HokkaidoJA8AA-JA8ZZ      JA8AAA-JA8ZZZ

In this way, the Japan's authority finally issued pre-permits — for test transmissions — to thirty applicants on July 29, 1952. July 29 became the "Amateur Radio Day" in Japan later.

The Thirty Amateurs Firstly Got Preliminary Licenses
123568
JA1AAShono
(ex J2IB)
JA2AANakagawa JA3AAShima JA5AAKume JA6AAItabashi JA8AAHama
JA1ABIchikawa JA2ABNakagawa JA3ABFujimoto   JA6ABKumano JA8ABIshida
JA1ACMurai
(ex J2MI)
JA2ACMuramatsu JA3ACYuasa
(ex J3FJ)
JA6ACMiyahara  
JA1ADSaito
(ex J2PU)
JA2ADKatayama JA3ADFukada
(ex J2DJ)
 
JA1AEFukushi
(ex J2KM)
  JA3AETakei
(ex J3ES)
JA1AFNakayama JA3AFSakurai
(ex J3FZ)
JA1AGKurokawa  
JA1AHKomiya
JA1AIInaba
JA1AJTaniguchi
JA1AKYamanaka
JA1ALTakezawa
1W (now 0)2W (now 9) 
JA1WAAbe
(JA0AA later)
JA2WAKadoma
(JA9AA later)
 

The following five applicants of them firstly got the real licenses on August 27, 1952: JA1AB, JA1AF, JA1AH, JA1AJ and JA3AA [CQ][JA2RM 2001h2].

Here let's trace two pioneers' call signs. Ken'ichi Kajii became from JAZZ, 3AZ and J3CC to JA1FG; and Koichi Kasahara became from JFMT, 3AA, JXIX, J3DD, J1EZ and J2GR to JA1HAM [JA3HXJ].

Ninth and Tenth Call Area Added

From 1952 to 1954, the Shin'etsu district (current Area 0) was a part of the first call area, as well as Hokuriku (current Area 9) was the second. The reason was the authority (1) made resistance to use the numerals 1 and 0, which had not been used before the war, and (2) could not TYPE the character "Ø." Instead of that, JA1WA-ZZ, JA1WAA-ZZZ and JA2WA-ZZ, JA2WAA-ZZZ were allocated to these areas respectively. From these call sign blocks, JA1WA-ZZ and WAA-WAF were actually issued for Shin'etsu and JA2WA-ZS for Hokuriku[OG 8481][OG 8521].

But the authority changed its mind to establish Area 0 and 9 on November 27, 1954 at last. On November 27 [I need to make sure] and on December 15, 1954 for Hokuriku and Shin'etsu respectively, the authority permitted existing JA1WA-ZZ, WAA-WAF and JA2WA-ZS to change to JA0AA-EF and JA9AA-DS respectively.

Transition from JA1W and JA2W to JA0 and JA9
District
\
Year
Shin'etsuHokuriku
AllocatedIssued AllocatedIssued
as Provisional Licenseas License as Provisional Licenseas License
1952 
JA1WA-ZZ,
JA1WAA-ZZZ
JA1WA-ZZ,
JA1WAA-WAF
JA1WA-ZZ,
JA1WAA-WAF
JA2WA-ZZ,
JA2WAA-ZZZ
JA2WA-ZZ,
JA2WAA-WAF
JA2WA-ZS

:
:
1954
JA0 JA9
:
:

This re-assignment was NOT held all together in a certain day, but it ended up that all JA1WAs and JA2WAs gradually applied for their new JA0 and JA9 call signs.

Of course, new applicants after the change-over, initially got JA0 and JA9 their call signs.

Newly Assigned Call Signs and That Dates, in Shin'etsu and Hokuriku, in the Transition
1W → 02W → 9
JA1ZS  1954-11-26
JA1ZT  1954-12-02
JA1ZU  1954-12-02
JA1ZV  1954-12-02
JA1ZW  1954-10-29


JA1ZZ  1954-12-14
JA1WAA 1954-12-17
JA1WAB 1954-12-12
JA1WAC 1954-12-17
JA1WAD 1954-12-04

JA1WAF 1955-01-11














JADX   1955-02-03
JADY   1955-02-07









JAEI   1955-01-28
JAEJ   1955-02-26
JAEK   1955-03-04

JAEM   1955-03-08
JA0EN  1955-04-13
JAEO   1955-03-08
JA2ZJ 1954-12-03


JA2ZM 1954-11-29



JA2ZQ 1954-10-13

JA2ZS 1954-12-01
















JA9DK 1954-12-28
JA9DL 1955-03-22







JA9DT 1954-12-11
JA9DU 1955-03-18
JA9DV 1954-12-11

JA9DX 1954-12-06
JA9DY 1955-01-25
JA9DZ 1954-12-11
JA9EA 1955-01-29
JA9EB 1955-01-10
JA9EC 1955-03-18
JA9ED 1955-03-29
JA9EE 1955-01-26
JA9EF 1955-03-24

whrere,

After this modificaiton, vacated JA1WA-ZZ, WAA-WAF and JA2WA-ZS were recycled in the current first and second call areas as follows:

Consequently current JA1WA-ZZ stations are at least four years "younger" than the other two-letter suffix stations in Kanto (i.e. JA1AA-VZ, licensed 1952-54). In addition, younger than the beginning part of the three-letter suffixes too, because when JA1WA-ZZ was re-issued — the authority gave them to applicans after January 1, 1958[CQ 1958-1] , and exhausted in January and February — the three-letter suffix call signs had issued at least as JA1BZ$ in the first (Kanto) area already.

On the other hand, in the second (Tokai) area, still JA2M$s were being issued when JA9 was carved out. So JA2WA-ZZ were naturally re-issued after JA2VZ, around 1957. [JA2XT]

Area Borders Slightly Changed at Three Points 1958-1963

We had four mergings of municipalities, which crossed the call area borders and occurred slight modifications of them.

In the case of Fukuura-area, one station had to change his call sign from JA4BVQ to JA3JRP, about two years after the merger. Yamaguchi-village's case, in 2005, is described later.

Japanese Nationals in Okinawa got KR8

Ryukyu Government in Okinawa permitted Japanese nationals to establish amateur stations in 1961 at last. The first station by the Japanese in Okinawa was KR8AB since June 22, 1961 [CQ].

Ogasawara Came back

Ogasawara Is. came back to Japan on June 26, 1968. The authority allocated JD1 to here on March 6, 1969 [JA1ADN 1995].



Hierarchical Geographic Relations in the Broad Sense "Ogasawara" (JD1 Area)
Administrative
District
Prefix Islands DXCC Country/Entity JCG# IOTA#
- May 29, 1976
 
May 30, 1976
- Nov. 30, 1980

Dec. 1, 1980 -
Ogasawara-vil,
Tokyo-pref.
JD1 Nishinoshima I. JD1(/O) JD1(/O) JD1(/O) 10007 AS-031
Ogasawara Is. aka
Bonin Is.
Mukojima Is.
Chichijima Is.
Hahajima Is.
Kazan Is. aka
Iwo Is. and
Volcano Is.
AS-030
Okino-torishima I. aka
Douglas Reef and
Parece Vera
7J1 ex AS-052
(- Feb. 1, 2001)
Minami-Tori-shima I. aka
Marcus I.
JD1(/M) OC-073
In some categorizations, Kazan Is. is included in Ogasawara Is.

JD1(/O)

Ogasawara and Kazan Is. is still a separated country/entity. They were also known as Bonin and Volcano Islands respectively[DXCC]. KG6I, Iwo I. is now belongs JD1(/O).

JD1(/M)

Minami-Tori-shima I. is another separated country/entity since 1960. It was also known as Marcus I.

7J1

Okino-Tori-shima I. has been a separated entity (or a "country" at that time) May 30, 1976 - November 30, 1980 as 7J1.

Okinawa Came back

Okinawa came back from the US to Japan on May 15, 1972. Existing stations KR8AA-ME changed their call signs to JR6AA-ME all together. Newly established stations after that use the JR6QUA-XZZ block followed by all of the JS6 [JA1ADN 1995].

Hierarchical Geographic Relations in Okinawa-prefecture
Administrative
District and Prefixes
Islands and IOTA# Cities and Guns
Okinawa-pref.

JR6AA-ME

JR6QUA-XZZ
JR6YAA-JR6YTQ
onwards

JS6AAA-JS6QQZ
JS6QUA-JS6TGJ
onwards

Same entity,
included in Japan
Ryukyu Is. Okinawa Is.
AS-017
Okinawa I.
and Coast
Most of the cities (Except JCC#4704, 4714);
Kunigami-gun JCG#47001,
Parts of Shimaziri-gun JCG#47002 and
All of Nakagami-gun JCG#47003
Kerama Is. Parts of Shimajiri-gun JCG#47002
Sakishima Is. Miyako Is.
AS-079
Miyakojima-city JCC#4714 and
Miyako-gun JCG#47004
Yaeyama Is.
AS-024
Ishigaki-city JCC#4704 and
Yaeyama-gun JCG#47005
Senkaku Is.
 
Ishigaki-city JCC#4704
Daito Is.
AS-047
Parts of Shimaziri-gun JCG#47002

Thus, the above historical facts made up the CURRENT Japanese call areas.

Area Border Slightly Changed around Former Yamaguchi-village in 2005

On Feb. 13, 2005, Yamaguchi-mura (or -village), in JCG#09004 Kiso-gun, Nagano-pref. was merged with Nakatsugawa-city (JCC#1906), Gifu-pref. across the call area border from Area 0 to Area 2. But for 29 hams in this area, the authority permitted to maintain their original 0 area call signs.

Each licensee was able to chose to change his/her call sign to a new one of Area 2, or not. In consequence, twenty hams kept their original 0 call signs, while nine hams switched their call signs to new ones as JQ2PIN-PIV.

Survived "0" Call Signs into Area 2 — 20 Licensees
JARL Member? Operating HF? Call Signs
Yes Yes JA0DTF, ex-JA0GQP, JA0QWO
No JE0GEX, ex-JH0CBL, JJ0JXI, ex-JR0SRS
No,
V,UHF Only
JE0JED, JF0VKE, ex-JG0EHF, JG0SIA, ex-JG0SIB,
ex-JH0JIA, ex-JI0JFZ, ex-JJ0EYM, ex-JJ0GGQ, ex-JJ0GGR,
ex-JJ0GGT, ex-JJ0GIC, JR0CZK


Newly Assigned "2" Area Call Signs — 9 Licensees
From

To
JG0LOX

JQ2PIT
JJ0BRW

JQ2PIV
JJ0GGP

JQ2PIN
JJ0GGS

JQ2PIO
JJ0GIF

JQ2PIP
JJ0JYI

JQ2PIQ
JJ0KPL

JQ2PIR
JJ0LIA

JQ2PIU
JJ0LNK

JQ2PIS

— END —


Transition of Territories & Prefixes

The areas where had been occupied by Japan became independent countries or returned to the original countries.

Transition of the Japanese Overseas Territories and Their Prefixes [NENPYO][JJ1TBB]
Year Taiwan Guandong
(Kwantung)
Manchuria Chosen Nan'yo (or South Sea) Sakhalin I. Kril
Is.
Liaodong
Pen.
 NorthSouthMarianaPalauCarolineMarshallSouthNorth
1854 China China Chosen/
Korea
Spain     Japan Russia
1874 Spain
1875 Russia J7
1885 Germany
1895 Apr. J9 Japan China
1895 May China
1899 Germany
1905 J8P China J7P Russia
1910 J8
1919 J9P
1932 MX
World War II
1945 C3 XU, C; C9(Manchuria) J8 KG6R,S,T
KH0
J9
KC6
J9
KC6
J9
KX6
UA0F UA0F
1948 P5 HM
HL
1949 BA-BL,
BR-BT,
BY-BZ
1950 BM-BQ,
BU-BX
1951
1953
1968
1972
1991 V6 V7
1994 T8

Where the Nan'yo (or South Sea) Islands was a mandated territory that the League of Nation gave to Japan between World Wars.

On the other hand, Japan's original areas returned after World War II by a gradual process.

Transition of the Japanese Original Territories and Their Prefixes [NENPYO]
Year Okinawa Amami
Is.
Tokara
Is.
Ogasawara
Is.
The Four Northern Is.
Habomai Is.Shikotan I.Kunashiri I.Etorofu I.
Prewar J5 J1
J2
J7
World War II
1945 J9A
KR6, KR8
J5
JA7
J5
JA7
J9
JA0
KG6I
UA0F
1951 (Japan)
1953 JA6
KA7
1968 JD1
KA0, KA1
1972 JR6
KA6

The Japan-Soviet Joint Declaration of 1956 laid down that Habomai Is. and Shikotan I. should be returnable to Japan. But as a matter of fact, Russia is still the administrative authority in the Four Northern Islands.

In addition, South Korea asserted its supremacy on Takeshima Is. in Sea of Japan in 1952, and occupies since 1954. Koren operated HM9A/P (1962), 6M0DX (1998), D98TOK (1998) and D9D (2008) from there.

Continue to The Enigma of Japanese Call Sign System


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References

[AYUMI]
JARL, Amateur musen no ayumi, Tokyo: JARL, 1976
[CQ]
http://www.cqpub.co.jp/cqham/history/nenpyou1940.htm
[CQ 1958-1]
CQ
[DEMPA 1987]
Masatsugu Sakata, "Amateur musen no mukashi banashi (8)," Dempa Juken Kai, Dec. 1987: 132-133
[DEMPA 1993]
Henshubu, "Teatime Yomoyama Banashi: Amateur kyoku no Yobidashi Fugo," Dempa Juken Kai, June 1993: 134-136
[DXCC]
Notes on Deleted DXCC Entities
http://www.arrl.org/awards/dxcc/deleted_notes.html#7
[HG]
http://hamgallery.com/qsl/country/Ogasawara/kg61d.htm
[JA1AN 2]
2) Kyushu no amateur musen hassho (1)--Sono tegakari
http://www.icom.co.jp/beacon/ham_life/inami/002.html
[JA1AN 3]
3) Kyushu no amateur musen hassho (2)--Senzen
http://www.icom.co.jp/beacon/ham_life/inami/003.html
[JA1AN 22]
Watashi no amateur musen jinsei (22)--Nando mo kawatta call sign--sono hensen no rekishi
http://www.icom.co.jp/beacon/ham_life/hara/022.html
[JA1AN 23]
Watashi no amateur musen jinsei (23)--KA-kyoku mondai
http://www.icom.co.jp/beacon/ham_life/hara/023.html
[JA1BC]
http://member.nifty.ne.jp/rnp/JA1BC01.htm
[JA1ADN 1995]
Noboru Ihara, DX Manual, Tokyo: CQ Shuppansha, 1995
[JA1BWA]
Toshio Takahashi, JA1BWA, "DX no Rekishi (3) Reimei-ki," CQ Ham Radio, Aug., 2002: 172-175
[JA1FRA 1976a]
Toshio Kaneko, JA1FRA, "Ham zenshi kiko (1) J1AA Hiwa," CQ Ham Radio, Jan., 1976: 339-343
[JA1FRA 1976b]
Toshio Kaneko, JA1FRA, "Ham zenshi kiko (2) Zoku J1AA Hiwa--Yami ni kieta Koshinsho," CQ Ham Radio, Feb., 1976: 339-343
[JJ1TBB]
Masumi Kawasaki, BU2/JJ1TBB, "Ashu musenden--Asia to koyu shiyo," CQ Ham Radio, Jan., 2003: 186-187
[JA2RM 1999h]
JA2RM, "Mukashi (Sengo sugu) JA no prefix wa senryo beikoku gunjin kyoku datta hanashi"
http://www01.u-page.so-net.ne.jp/ba2/jim/ja2rm/990828p1.html
[JA2RM 1999h2]
JA2RM, "KA kyoku wa MARS gun'yo hojo amateur musen kyoku to nattaga kyokuto niwa motomoto betsuni MARS ga atta"
http://www01.u-page.so-net.ne.jp/ba2/jim/ja2rm/990828p2.html
[JA2RM 1999h22]
JA2RM, "KA kyoku no area ni KA1 ga nakatta riyu"
http://www01.u-page.so-net.ne.jp/ba2/jim/ja2rm/990828p2.html
[JA2RM 2001h]
JA2RM, "Sengo no amateur musen shi (6): Nipponjin Ham saikai eno seigan to JARL no ugoki," Habi News 17 Aug. 2001

http://www01.u-page.so-net.ne.jp/ba2/jim/ja2rm/010817.html
[JA2RM 2001h2]
JA2RM, "Sengo no amateur musen shi (8): Taibo hisashi, Nippon jin no te ni JA kyoku menkyo," Habi News 17 Aug. 2001

http://www01.u-page.so-net.ne.jp/ba2/jim/ja2rm/010817.html
[JA2XT]
JA2XT, "Watashi no jujisha menkyo"
http://www3.tokai.or.jp/ja2xt/menkyo.html
[JA3HXJ]
Yoshihiko Hasegawa, JA3HXJ, "JARL no hajimari to 21 seiki no makuake"
http://www.19box.net/ham/content1/
[JE3TEA]
Hiroshi Mizuhara, JE3TEA/4, "A Story of Foreigner's ham station JA5RG," CQ Ham Radio, Sept., 1999: 96-97
[JA0AD]
Shin'etsu no ham tachi. Kobayashi-san to sono rekishi (2) Senzen no Shin'etsu no amateur musen
http://www.icom.co.jp/beacon/ham_life/kobayashi/index.html
[JN 34-2]
JARL NEWS February 1934 (#39)
[JN 37-1]
JARL NEWS January 1937 (#58)
[MORSE]
Henshubu, Ed, Morse Tsushin, Tokyo: CQ Shuppansha, 2001
[NENPYO]
Kota Kodama, Ed, Nihonshi-Nenpyo - Chizu, Tokyo: Yoshikawa-kobun-kan, 2001
[OG 8481]
Official Gazette #8481, Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications Notification 428, Apr. 11, 1955
[OG 8521]
Official Gazette #8521, Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications Notification 616, May 31, 1955
[QST]
Phil Sager, WB4FDT and Rick Palm, K1CE, "An Overview of Amateur Call Signs -- Past and Present," QST May 1994: 54-59
[ZOKU]
"Sengo amateur musen shi," Zoku nihon musen shi (I), 1972: 269

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